Condition or Disorder Intervention vs. Control Outcome Follow-up Duration Event Rates % NNT (95% CI)
CER EER
Acute otitis media (AOM)1 Xylitol syrup vs. control syrup Incidence of AOM 3 months 41 29 8 (4 to 53)
Xylitol gum vs. control gum 28 16 9 (5 to 36)
Xylitol lozenges vs. control gum 28 22 Not significant
Diarrhea incidence in children treated with antibiotics2 Lctobacillus GG vs. placebo Incidence of diarrhea 10 days 26 8 6 (4 to 13)
Stool consistency < 4§ 48 17 4 (3 to 6)
Acute otitis media3 Amoxicillin suspension vs. placebo Persistent symptoms at 4 days 6 weeks 72 59 8 (4 to 72)
Clinical treatment failure at 11 days (persistent fever, earache, crying, irritability or no improvement in appearance of the tympanic membrane) 70 60 Not significant
Constipation in children4 Cisapride vs. placebo clinical response (>3 spontaneous bowel movements/week with no fecal soiling and no use of other laxtives for ≥ 2 weeks) 12 weeks 42 76 3 (2 to 60)
Routine primary immunisation5 Longer needle vs. shorter needle (control) Any local reaction up to 3 days 3 days 84 62 5 (3 to 19)
Redness at 6 hours 66 40 5 (3 to 81)
Redness at 1 day 63 28 3 (2 to 7)
Redness at 2 days 39 9 4 (3 to 8)
Redness at 3 days 28 4 5 (3 to 9)
Swelling at 6 hours 58 23 3 (3 to 6)
Swelling at 1 day 63 28 3 (2 to 7)
Swelling at 2 days 51 19 4 (3 to 7)
Swelling at 3 days 40 13 4 (3 to 10)
Children with asthma exacerbations6 Ward care based on a clinical pathway (comprised a nurse driven protocol for weaning bronchodilators, regular peak flow measurements, asthma teaching, prescriptions for home treatments and coordination of care between the attending physician and private medical doctors) vs. usual ward care Discharge within 24 hours of admission 2 weeks 38 15 5 (3 to 14)
Acute diarrhea in children7 Oral rehydration solution (ORS) vs. standard care Unscheduled follow up visit 10 days 17 11 16 (8 to 481)
ORS use 71 85 8 (5 to 17)
Head lice in children8 Malathion lotion vs. bug busting (control) Live lice at 7 days after treatment 7 days 63 23 2 (2 to 6)
Severe watery diarrhea in children9 Racecadotril vs. placebo 5 day cure rate 5 days 66 84 6 (4 to 29)

References


  1. Pediatrics 1998 Oct;102(4 Pt 1):879-84 
  2. J Pediatr. Nov 1999; 135: 564-8 
  3. BMJ. Feb 5, 2000; 320: 350-4 
  4. J Pediatr. Jan 2000;136: 35-40 
  5. BMJ. Oct 14, 2000; 321: 931-3 
  6. Pediatrics. Nov 2000; 106: 1006-12 
  7. Pediatrics. Sep 1999; 104: e29 
  8. Br J gen Pract. Oct 2000; 50: 817-20 
  9. N Engl J Med. Aug 17, 2000; 343: 463-7